We solved the problem of separating dependencies between your projects. However, there are many great tools that you might want to use in many of your projects. For example, black - a code formatter, or flake8 - a linter (I will talk about them more in the next part of the workshop).
Let’s take a look at black - you run
$ black some_python_file, and it will reformat this file to match a predefined set of style rules (use double quotes, don’t exceed 88 characters per line, etc.). This is a tool that you probably want to use for all your projects, so there is no point in installing it separately in each virtual environments. But you shouldn’t install it globally either. The more packages you install globally, the bigger the chance that some of their dependencies will conflict with each other.
Or maybe you want to run some Python package on your computer without actually installing it. You need it just this one time, so there is no point in keeping all the dependencies installed after that.
This is where you might be interested in using
pipx. It installs pip packages in separate environments, but at the same time, those packages act as if they were installed globally. You don’t need to activate any virtualenv to run them.
Install pipx with
pip install pipx (or
brew install pipx on macOS) and make sure that the PATH variable is updated by running
pipx ensurepath command.
Now, each time you want to install a Python package on your computer (outside of a virtual environment specific to a project), do
pipx install my_package instead of
pip install my_package.
You can list your packages with:
$ pipx list venvs are in /Users/YOUR_USERNAME/.local/pipx/venvs apps are exposed on your $PATH at /Users/YOUR_USERNAME/.local/bin package black 19.10b0, Python 3.6.2 - black - blackd package flake8 3.7.9, Python 3.6.2 - flake8
And remove them with:
$ pipx uninstall my_package
pipx run command, you can run a command from the pip package in a temporary virtualenv that will be deleted after the command exits:
$ pipx run black my_file.py ⢿ installing package 'black' reformatted my_file.py All done! ✨ 🍰 ✨ 1 file reformatted
You can even run a specific version of a package:
$ pipx run --spec black==18.3a1 black --version black, version 18.3a1
Remember when we installed
flake8 linter when setting up VS Code? We installed it globally, but a much better way would be to use pipx and tell VS Code to use it:
pipx install flake8
Find out the path to the flake8 binary:
$ which flake8 /Users/YOUR_USERNAME/.local/bin/flake8
Tell VS Code to use that binary by setting the following value in